International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2017, Vol. By continuing, you're agreeing to use of cookies. Byerley, S.L. In addition they should ensure that the web sites are designed in such a way that they are accessible to this category of users. Web accessibility can make it easier for people to find a website, access it, and use it successfully, thus resulting in increased audience and increased effectiveness. Research related to technology and innovation in education. An evaluation of the functionality and accessibility of e-readers for individuals with print disabilities. With the library being a key provider of information especially to students with visual impairment, there is need therefore to keenly explore web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing these e-resources by learners with visual impairment. Web content accessibility guidelines were used as a measurement of accessibility. 509-27. 2, pp. They noted that from screen readers to augmentative communication programs, persons with disabilities can attend classes, participate in discussions, and read and write assignments independently. Ie more users and more use. Specifically 52.8% which constituted more than half of the sampled students indicated that it is not easy to access and use e-resources. How to use technology to provide stretch and challenge for all learners Objective. Data was analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Learners and educators alike are often intimidated by—and even resistant to—the use of new technologies in a classroom setting. Freedom to learn for the 80's. doi:10.1108/EL-01-2013-0012, Web Accessibility and Use of Assistive Technology in Accessing E-Resources by Learners with Visual Impairments, http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/k/pecs/se/publications.html, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), East African Journal of Information Science. It could also be due to the consideration of high staff knowledge on other library operations during staff recruitment without keen interest on the staff knowledge on assistive technology for the staff serving at the section of users with special needs. The findings were as presented in figure 7: More than half of the students responded that they had not received any user education on how to access e-resources. The library management should ensure provision of enough AT for use by library users with visual impairments. This is also supported by a study carried out in Canada by Dermody & Majekodunmi (2011) who stated that there is no doubt that technology has opened the door for students with disabilities. However today lots of resources like; books, journals, encyclopedias, theses, scientific articles and reports, are open to access in electronic databases in digital media (Assist & Ongoz, 2010). Offered by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in assistive technology. AHEAD is delighted to release 'Learning from Home During Covid-19: A Survey of Irish FET and HE Students with Disabilities' - a report gathering the findings of an AHEAD survey of learners with disabilities. The study recommends that the library should design a AT training program for learners with visual impairments as well as conducting regular and one on one training sessions. This was a significant number, close to half of the students involved in the study. She asked the students to state the reasons why they found AT available not useful. Technology for learners with literacy difficulties is used widely in higher education, but not yet in schools. It is also a good policy indicator to the library management to ensuring adequate provision of screen reading and screen magnification software for use by the library users with visual impairment. The total of those who supported this by disagreeing to the statement that ‘there was enough assistive technology in the library’ was 68.1% constituting the majority. After analysis, tables and graphs were used to present quantitative data while qualitative data was presented in textual mode. ICTs and Assistive Technology (AT) are offering new opportunities for everyone but they are becoming more significant for persons with disabilities (PWDs). Aim. Further, the library management should consider taking their staff through support programs on how to serve best, users with special needs with in service trainings being apart. There were 80 learners with visual impairment and 5 staff members serving them. While this move has provided people with a more creative and flexible experience, there are dangers that some people will be excluded because they cannot use standard methods of access. We believe that wherever learning flourishes so do people. The findings contradict earlier findings by (Carney, 2003) which showed that the use of computers is particularly important to students with visual impairments, as their ability to use written communication can be enhanced and access to information improved. In order to make this information meaningful to the learner, self initiated information seeking behavior should be employed. The researcher found it necessary to find out whether the available assistive technology at the Post Modern Library was useful to the students with visual impairments. In order to find out whether the students were able to use assistive technology, the researcher sought to find out whether the students had any training on the use of assistive technology. The independent variable was use of adaptive technology. When using assistive technology that is adapted to the abilities of everyone, disabled end-users are able to participate in all aspects of social life on more equal terms than ever before. This is a good indicator to the library management that it is possible for the library users who have visual challenges to use electronic resources and that those who are not able to use them can be facilitated and supported once their challenges of access are known. However the study also showed that technology can also be a barrier. The main reasons given were those given below: The reasons given still revolve around the point of knowledge of using AT and adequacy of the available AT for use by the users with visual impairment. Tenopir et al. The use of the internet is becoming an essential part of day-to-day living. Wednesday, 20th May 2020. Web survey powered by SurveyMonkey.com. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. They should therefore be able to search for information independently. Rogers, C.R (1983). Please answer the questions below so that we can best meet the needs of our community. According to Brophy & Craven (2014), “Design for all” in a information centre environment basically means that information centre information technology (IT) systems and interfaces must be designed in a way that enables them to be read and interacted easily by all users of the information centre, whether they are physically visiting the information centre itself or accessing it remotely and regardless of any disability or access preference they may have. A significant number indicated that the available assistive technology was useful. A more recent study by Byerley, Chambers and Thohira, (2007) examined the accessibility of online databases from the database vendors’ perspectives. Access to information enables individuals to acquire knowledge. In line with the implementation of Flexible Learning Options, this Office requests the teachers especially the class adviser to facilitate our learners in accomplishing the Technology Accessibility Survey through this link bit.ly/DasmaTS2020.This will support the implementation of future endeavors relative to said intervention. It was administered twice with a time span of two weeks to 4 students with VI who were purposively selected from Kenya institute of special education, a location that was not used during the main study and Spearman rank order of correlation coefficient (Rho) was computed to determine the correlation between the results of the two administrations of the questionnaires. In order to achieve the above mentioned objective the research sought to find out whether user education specific to accessing electronic resources was given to users with visual impairment. Retrieved from http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/k/pecs/se/publications.html, Chaudhry, A. S. (2014). , 08:00. Sampling techniques: Purposive sampling technique was used to select all respondents for this study. Data collection technique: for the questionnaires, personal administration with on-the-spot-collection method was used. The theory distinguished two types of learning: cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant). Therefore the library management should ensure that training offered to users with visual impairment be provided by a staff with adequate skills in both assistive technology and access to electronic resources. Survey of Technology and Internet Access We are assessing the needs of our students for instruction at home. OK Question Title * 1. Power, R. and LeBeau, C. (2009), “How well do academic information centre web sites address the needs of database users with visual disabilities?”, The Reference Librarian,Vol. However if the available AT present does not tally with the number of students who are expected to use, then the available AT could be termed not useful as attributed to the stated speculation. This could be attributed to the students’ background from the primary, secondary level or the parents’ ability to facilitate the training for the students in assistive technology before joining university. However, if the technologies fail to match the needs of end-users, they can turn into a new barrier for PWDs. •        Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive. doi:10.1353/lib.2007.0029. 20 No. Ekwelem, V. O. LONDON, Aug. 10, 2020 – Pearson, the world's learning company, today said more than three out of every four learners globally say the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed education as we know it. This could also be attributed to peer teaching on assistive technology by those who already have the skills. To support the effectiveness of assistive technology, a survey of people with disabilities was conducted by The National Council on Disability (Berry & Ignash, 2003). For students with handwriting difficulties, being able to take notes on a laptop or computerized device (such as an iPad) can improve the quantity and quality of the notes (Vaughn & Bos, 2009). The ability to explore and describe web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing electronic information resources, would help information managers to consider ways of increasing accessibility to e-resources which would enhance access to information by this category of users. Reviewing the recent past, it can be seen that sharing method of resources of academic researches were printed references. Data analysis: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the collected data. (2007) indicated in their study that vendors are not addressing accessibility in their marketing efforts. This 2007 study from the vendor’s perspective influenced the authors to conduct their own test using learners with print disabilities. According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when: (1) the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, (2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems, and (3) self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success. California: C.E. First, access to the internet using contemporary technology may present barriers, thus excluding them from fully contributing in society. whether learners regularly use computers for learning, and teacher and learners’ expertise to use accessibility accommodations • Requirements of the technology, for example, scrolling when the text is larger can take more time and can require additional working memory if all required information is not visible on the screen 13, Issue 2, pp. Brophy, P., & Craven, J. Complete guide to survey questions with survey examples and sample survey questions that include question types, answer types and good questions for a survey like the Dichotomous Survey Question, Multiple Choice Question, Rank Order Scaling Question, Rating Scale Question, Semantic Differential Scale, Stapel Scale Question, Constant Sum Survey Questions and much more! Hewett, R., Torgerson, C., Douglas, G., Hewett, R., Torgerson, C., & Douglas, G. (2014). Many students stated that there was no such organized training at the section for users with special needs. 20 No. The task of this research paper was therefore to explore web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing e-resources by learners with visual impairment. (2009) as cited in (Nández & Borrego, 2014) showed that scholars’ use of electronic information has increased substantially over time as academic libraries transit from print to electronic collections. The survey shows learners believe it’s unlikely there will be a return to the pre-COVID world of entirely full-time in-person work and learning. Given the choice to invest in public education, the survey’s global respondents said they would prioritize technology for underserved learners, followed by ensuring schools are better prepared for online learning. (2002), “Accessibility and usability of web-based information centre databases for non-visual users”, Information centre Hi Tech, Vol. Various studies indicate that learners with disabilities experience unique challenges when accessing information centre resources (Byerley and Chambers, 2002; Coonin, 2002). (2002), “Establishing accessibility for e-journals: a suggested approach”, Information centre Hi Tech, Vol. With the rapid development of information technology and near-universal access to the internet, people are increasingly doing more of their reading and information gathering on computers rather than in printed books (Chia-chen & Chen, 2014). (2014). Web Accessibility, 55(4), 950–972. When the rating is arranged from very good (1) to below average (4), the staff scored 3 out of 4. The student should participate fully in the process of searching for information and have control over the type of information sought and the entire searching process. The findings of this research paper would enable information managers to make informed decisions in designing information websites and in the buildup of assistive technology equipments and skills in the current information society setting where digitization is emphasized. Think about an adult learner that simply uses Microsoft Windows® and only uses the built in web browser (Internet Explorer®): How would this affect them? This has two implications for people who are visually impaired or blind. For those who had not received training, the researcher further sought to establish the reasons for not attending or having received user education on how to access e-resources. Web Accessibility. Library Trends, 55(4), 950–972. The process of seeking information generates knowledge by providing access to the bank of knowledge found in information resources which includes electronic resources. 2, pp. The increasing provision of Web-based information resources has moved from a simple text interface to dynamic and interactive de­signs. The 2007 study by Byerley et al., indicated that only five of the 12 vendors (EBSCO, Elsevier, JSTOR, LexisNexis, ProQuest) surveyed conducted usability testing with people who have visual disabilities. Online databases and the research experience for university students with print disabilities. Library Hi Tech, 29(1), 149–160. Keywords: web accessibility, assistive technology (AT), e-resources, visual impairment. ICT have become the most suitable tool, in the field of education, to enhance independence and equal opportunities for all. By doing this, the external threats to electronic information access are minimized. Assistive technologies used by individuals who are blind are costly and accessible materials, such as popular books and textbooks, are slow to be developed (Stephanie et al., 2014). Research instruments: A questionnaire with both open and close-ended questions was used to collect data from learners with visual impairment while a structured interview was used for the staff. However a small but significant number of students indicated that it was easy for them to use e-resources. Those findings appear in the second annual Global Learner Survey, which captures the opinions and views of learners worldwide. Learners with visual impairment also have similar information needs as the other sighted learners. The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. These computer-related aids and equipment are commonly known as “assistive,” “adaptive,” “access,” or “enabling” technology. Student response to e-books : study of attitude toward reading among elementary school children in Kuwait. Use of social networks for academic purposes : a case study. The researcher considered it very important to establish whether the assistive technology present in the library was adequate to cater for the information access needs of users with visual impairment. However, Research has shown that people with disabilities are most at risk of being excluded from access, and in particular people who are blind or visually impaired and who use assistive technologies such as screen readers (Brophy & Craven, 2014). “Learners are resilient, so they are learning and moving forward in new ways to seize that opportunity, no matter what the future holds.”. The Global Learner Survey’s top findings included: To view the findings of the Global Learner Survey, including full findings for the US visit: go.pearson.com/global-learner-survey. In the light of the stated reasons of not receiving user education on accessing e-resources; the low number of e-resource access literacy could be attributed to unavailable logistical provisions in such trainings that could accommodate those library users with visual impairments. Research Design: The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. (2014). The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. In addition, it would be an eye opener for future researchers in the area of assistive technology and web accessibility for learners with visual impairment. From a global perspective there have been some concerns about persons with disabilities. The poll surveyed more than 7,000 people, ranging in age from 16 to 70. doi:10.1108/07378831111116976. The study adopted the Experiential Learning theory proposed by Carl Rogers (1983). This is an indication that assistive technology is a useful skill to those that have acquired it and therefore can be specifically very useful in facilitating easy access to electronic information resources. Relationships between SRS adoption attitude, learning approaches, and learning outcomes in higher-order thinking & learning and collaborative learning were analyzed with a … This can be through offering access skills, AT skills and creating accessible websites. Developments in technology have transformed both face-to-face and online learning. (2007). The study was carried out at Kenyatta University-Post Modern Library, and the population comprised of 80 learners and 5 staff members. Inside Higher Ed recently published a news piece about a case pending against Miami Univerity (OH), for having a website and using software that are inaccessible to students with disabilities. Pearson conducted the study during the pandemic with Harris Insights & Analytics, giving learners in seven countries the opportunity to voice their opinions on primary, secondary and higher education; and careers and the future of work. Global Study: Three out of Four Learners Believe the Pandemic Is Revolutionizing Education, Work, Find expert information to make the most out of online learning, August 10, 2020, 08:00 In his theory, Rogers emphasized the following: •        Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student, •        Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum, •        Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low. While screen readers enable learners to navigate their on-line environment, they are limited on how they can interpret a busy website. 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